- Detergent and Soap Industry : Stearic acid is primarily applied in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. Soaps are manufactured from the saponification of stearic acid triglycerides. Esters of stearic acid are used to produce shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. Citric acid can harden soaps and give shampoos a pearly color and consistency.
- Candles Production : Stearic acid candle grade is utilized in the production of candles because of its excellent properties such as hardening the wax and strength of the candle. Stearic acid exhibits properties of activator and thickener in the wax manufacturing process. It also has an impact on the melting point of the wax, improving the durability and consistency of the candle.
- Cosmetic Industry : Stearic acid is used in the cosmetic industry because of its property to bind and thicken the products so they adhere smoothly to the skin and have a longer shelf life. The melting point of the stearic acid is above human body temperature, so they allow the cosmetics to adhere for an extended period.
- Rubber Industry : Stearic Acid rubber grade is used in vulcanization of surfactants, making plasticizers, softeners, water proofing agents, PVC additives etc. It is used in making tires. It acts as stock lubricant enabling easy mold flow and release during extrusion.
- Paint Industry : Stearic acid is a very effective wax modifier used in candle making. It is a non-toxic additive that increases the opacity and hardness of candles. It also increase candle whiteness and aid in holding the candles shape of freestanding candles in the warmer months. It increases the candle durability consistency and melting point. Due to its stability and shaping property it is used in making various art and craft products.
- Other Applications : In the ceramic industry, Stearic acid is a common lubricant in the injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders. It is used in the manufacture of lead acid batteries as a negative plate additive.
There are two ways in which phosphoric acid can be produced. The first is the wet process, where a phosphate-containing mineral such as calcium hydroxyapatite is treated with sulfuric acid. This produces phosphoric acid along with calcium sulphate precipitate. The second approach is called thermal process. Pure phosphorus reacts with air to give phosphorus pentoxide. This on reaction with water , produces phosphoric acid. This method allows heat to be recycled and reused. Salts of phosphoric acid: One or more of hydrogen atoms from phosphoric acid gets replaced by a positive ion and forms salts. These are ammonium, calcium and sodium salts of phosphoric acids. These salts are widely used in several industries. Ammonium phosphates- Monoammonium dihydrogenphosphate and diammonium hydrogenphosphate are much used as fertilizers and are made by mixing the correct proportions of phosphoric acid with anhydrous ammonia in a rotating drum. Calcium phosphates - The calcium phosphates are used extensively as fertilizers. Superphosphate and triple superphosphate are the two salts of phosphoric acid that are widely used in fertiliser industry. Sodium phosphates- Monosodium dihydrogenphosphate, Disodium hydrogenphosphate, Trisodium phosphate and Disodium pyrophosphate are some of sodium salts of phosphoric acids. Health and Safety: Products such as soft drinks that contain phosphoric acid pose no threat to human health in general. At moderate concentrations phosphoric acid solutions are irritating to the skin. Contact with concentrated solutions can cause severe skin burns and permanent eye damage.
|SYNONYMS||n-octadecanoate; 1-heptadecanecarboxylic acid; n-octadecylic acid; cetylacetic acid; Acide octadecylique; Acide stearique; stearophanic acid|
|PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES|
|PHYSICAL STATE||White to yellowish solid|
|MELTING POINT||67 – 69 C|
|SOLUBILITY IN WATER||0.1-1 g/100 ml at 23 C|
|NFPA RATINGS||Health: 1 Flammability: 1 Reactivity: 0|
|FLASH POINT||196 C|
|STABILITY||Stable under ordinary conditions|
|IODINE VALUE||0.5 max|
|ACID VALUE||208 – 210|
|SAP VALUE||209 – 211|
|TITER||TITER : 54 – 56 C|
|COLOR||0.5 R / 2.5 Y|
|CARBON DISTRIBUTION||C14 (1% max) + C16 (62% max) + C18 (45% max)|